Ten thousand years ago (Neolithic)
Dry farming invented involving the use of the hoe.

Six thousand years ago (Chalcolithic)
Floodwater farming in the Jordan Valley begins.

Five thousand years ago (Early Bronze Age)
Runoff farming begins to be developed along with use of the plow.

Four thousand years ago (Middle & Late Bronze Age)
Rooftop harvesting of water into cistern experimented with. Hillside terracing experimented with.

Three thousand years ago (Iron Age)
First large water reservoirs constructed. Hillside Terracing comes into general and widespread use. Rooftop collection of water into cisterns becomes the norm.

Two thousand years ago (Classical Era)
Widespread construction of huge water reservoirs and cisterns. Further refinement of runoff farming technology. Aqueducts constructed for long-distance transport of water.

One thousand years ago (Islamic Era)
Introduction of wide variety of new crops suitable to production and runoff and dryland farming conditions.

The present century (Modern Era)
Ancient systems of water harvesting abandoned in favor of mining of underground aquifers and reservoirs by means of deep drilling.


Figure 17. Chronological Framework of Water Harvesting